NATIONS, HUMAN RIGHTS,
FREEDOM OF RELIGION OR BELIEF
of Religion or Belief and State
UNDER INDONESIA’S SURFACE, AN INTRICATE QUILT OF
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UPR opportunity - reconcile Pancasila State ideology with Human Rights
Standards on Freedom of Religion or Belief.
United Nations, Governments,
Religions or Beliefs, Academia, NGOs, Media, Civil Society
Review: Review: Under Indonesia’s Surface, an Intricate Quilt of Faiths, by Norimitsu Onishi, New York Times: Thursday 18
February 2010. Indonesia: Universal Periodic Review & Freedom of Religion
“About 90 percent of Indonesians are
now Muslim, with only pockets of Buddhists and Hindus left. But Hinduism and
Buddhism, Java’s dominant religions for a much longer period, permeate the
society and contribute to Indonesia’s traditionally moderate form of Islam.”
more than a decade, proponents of a more orthodox version of Islam have gained
ground in Indonesia. More and more women are wearing headscarves and more
Indonesians are adopting Arabic-style religious rituals as fundamentalists
press for a purge of pre-Islamic values and ceremonies. But Indonesia’s
traditional Islam provides a counterpoint. ‘This is Indonesia,’ said Suwarsono
Muhammand, an official at the Islamic University. ‘In the long history of
Indonesia, we have proven that different religions can live peacefully.”
INDONESIA – Universal Periodic Review
Webcast: Indonesia Adopted
Universal Periodic Review.
UPR Working Group Report – Conclusions and Recommendations; Indonesia
Indonesia Universal Periodic Report linked above includes Recommendations made
by UN Member States who reviewed the Indonesia National Report and participated
in Inter-active Dialogue with Indonesia that resulted in the UPR Working Group
Tandem Project Follow-up Recommendation:
Reports for the Universal Periodic Review most often do not have enough
information for a follow-up to International Standards on Freedom of Religion
or Belief in Article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political
Rights (ICCPR) or the 1981 UN Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of
Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief.
Tandem Project Follow-up Recommendation: Indonesia – Universal Periodic Review
& Freedom of Religion or Belief.
the official government philosophy recognizes six religions in the
Islam, Protestantism, Catholicism,
Hinduism, Buddhism and Confuscianism are the six official religions. The
Constitution accords “all persons the right to worship according to their own
religion or belief” but states Indonesia is based upon belief in one supreme
Tandem Project Follow-up Recommendation
encourages government, non-governmental organizations and civil society in
Indonesia to sponsor projects that develop national and local approaches to
freedom of religion or belief, based on integration, dialogue and education.
Programs would recognize Pancasila as the official philosophical
foundation of the Indonesian
while developing programs to reconcile international human rights law and
standards on freedom of religion or belief with Pancasila, as a
follow-up to the Indonesia Universal Periodic Review.”
Philosophical Basis of the Indonesian State
criticism of Pancasila includes denying the rights of polytheistic religions,
notably Hinduism, practiced by a significant minority of Indonesians, and some
conservative Muslims for being too secular and inclusive.
State Department 2009 International Religious Freedom Report, Indonesia.
U.S. State Department 2009 International Religious Freedom Report is an
inclusive twenty page report is included in the attached Indonesia – Universal
Periodic Review & Freedom of Religion or Belief.